The Booster Question

As the Delta variant continues to spread — and breakthrough infections are occurring among vaccinated people — momentum is building in some rich countries for giving additional doses of a Covid-19 vaccine to some fully vaccinated people.

Germany, following Israel’s example, said this week that it would start offering booster shots to some higher-risk citizens. France, Russia and Hungary are doing the same. Britain has already purchased 60 million extra Pfizer vaccine doses in case vulnerable people need a third shot this fall.

At the same time, billions of people around the world continue to wait for their first dose.

Do we need booster shots? Here are some answers, with help from The Times’s Apoorva Mandavilli, who has been covering the pandemic.

The question of immunity

Scientists aren’t in agreement about whether we need boosters.

For now, the U.S. isn’t following those countries’ leads. Instead it’s saying that for people who are fully vaccinated, an additional dose is not necessary. Not yet, anyway.

Most studies indicate that immunity from mRNA vaccines, like Pfizer’s and Moderna’s, is long-lasting. Recent data from Israel suggested a decline in efficacy of the Pfizer vaccine against infection after a few months. “I would go tomorrow to get the third shot,” Dr. Gary Simon, a George Washington University infectious disease expert, told The Atlantic last week.

But the effectiveness of preventing serious illness remained extremely high, according to the data.

Preventing infections isn’t the primary aim of the vaccines, Apoorva explains, even though they protect against that as well. “They were designed to prevent hospitalization and death,” she says, “and they’re doing that very well.”

At the moment, Apoorva told me, the only people who seem to need extra shots are those who are immunocompromised. In the U.S., that is 3 to 5 percent of the population, some of whom will not produce a strong immune response from a vaccine.

“They’re not fully protected right now,” Apoorva says. A third shot could offer them the immunity most people get from two shots.

A lot of scientists believe that shots should first go to unvaccinated people in poor countries — including health care workers and older people — rather than giving boosters to people who are unlikely to get very sick. Sending shots abroad has humanitarian benefits, Apoorva explains, but also scientific ones: If fewer people around the globe get the virus, it makes it harder for new variants to evolve.

What the U.S. is doing

The government, too, isn’t entirely sure about the issue.

Last month, Dr. Anthony Fauci said people didn’t need boosters yet, given that more than 90 percent of people being hospitalized with Covid were unvaccinated.

But Biden administration officials increasingly think some vulnerable populations (such as people 65 and over and people with compromised immune systems) will probably need extra doses.

The administration has already bought enough vaccine to deliver third doses of Pfizer and Moderna if needed, The Times’s Sharon LaFraniere has reported. It has also sent almost 112 million shots to other countries.

A push toward boosters

Pfizer, which is a for-profit company, has been making its own case for booster shots. Last month, the company reported that the power of its two-dose vaccine wanes slightly over time, but continues to offer lasting protection against serious disease. “It’s in their interest to say third doses are required,” Apoorva says.

It’s also more profitable to sell vaccine doses to countries like the U.S., which pay more money for the shots than poorer countries could. Pfizer and Moderna both recently increased the price of their vaccines in new contracts with the E.U.

There’s also some anecdotal evidence of people getting third shots in the U.S., even though the government doesn’t recommend it at the moment. (One San Francisco hospital is offering a supplemental shot to residents who got the one-dose Johnson & Johnson vaccine.)

“I see it on social media all the time: people saying, ‘I was worried so I just went to the CVS and got a third dose,’” Apoorva told me. But, she added, right now there’s no need — so far the “evidence tells us it is not necessary.”

We will keep following the questions around booster shots, and if anything changes we will update you in a future newsletter.

More on the virus

The F.D.A. is aiming to complete the approval process for Pfizer’s vaccine by Labor Day.

New York City will require proof of vaccination for indoor dining and gyms.

Here’s how to think about the Delta variant if you’re vaccinated.


Cuomo Investigation

Gov. Andrew Cuomo sexually harassed 11 women, including several who worked for him, the New York attorney general found.

President Biden called on Cuomo to resign. New York’s State Assembly speaker said he would speed up a separate impeachment inquiry.

The report included a new accusation from a state trooper, who said Cuomo had harassed her while she was assigned to protect him. This is what the women described.

Cuomo denied having acted inappropriately and called the investigation “biased.”

“I do it with everyone,” Cuomo said about being physical, as a montage showed photos of him kissing and touching people.


The Biden administration imposed a narrower federal eviction moratorium for parts of the country where the coronavirus is surging.

An establishment Democrat and a Trump-endorsed Republican won their primaries for open House seats in Ohio.

Police officers who responded to the Capitol riot will receive Congressional Gold Medals.

Tokyo Olympics

Sydney McLaughlin won the 400-meter hurdles, defeating the 2016 Olympic champion, Dalilah Muhammad. See how McLaughlin beat her own world record.

Tamyra Mensah-Stock, a Texas native, became the first Black woman to win a gold medal in wrestling.

The U.S. women’s basketball team routed Australia to reach the semifinals.

Sakura Yosozumi of Japan, 19, won the women’s park skateboarding event.

Other Big Stories

The Bootleg fire in Oregon, the largest in the U.S., is more than 80 percent contained. But it could continue burning until October.

Climate change could cause emperor penguin colonies to effectively go extinct by 2100.

Bodies floating downriver are the latest evidence of atrocities in Ethiopia’s nine-month civil war.

A Belarusian antigovernment activist was found dead in a park in Ukraine after going missing on Monday.

A passenger assaulted three flight attendants on a plane from Philadelphia to Miami, prompting one crew member to tape him to his seat.


The U.S. can take action on climate change while growing its economy, Kate Brown, Oregon’s governor, argues.

Congress should lift the financial and legal barriers that prevent formerly incarcerated Americans from getting jobs, Jamie Dimon of JPMorgan Chase writes.


Below the surface: This underwater park is home to nearly 100 shipwrecks.

Shoes: See Prince’s killer collection of custom heels.

Cargo: What weighed down the Iraqi prime minister’s plane when it left the U.S.? 17,000 returned archaeological artifacts.

Advice from Wirecutter: Here’s what works to repel mosquitoes.

Lives Lived: Joan Ullyot, a physician and accomplished runner, argued in her research — and proved over miles and miles in competition herself — that women are built to run marathons. She died at 80.


Architecture that changed the world

What are the most significant works of postwar architecture? T Magazine asked architects, designers and journalists to make a list of 25 important buildings constructed since World War II. The goal, Kurt Soller writes, was to surface work that “had not only reshaped the world and era in which it was introduced but also has endured and remains influential today.”

The list spans styles, countries and aesthetics, though some names — modernists like Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Louis Kahn and Lina Bo Bardi — came up again and again. Other well-known picks include New York’s Seagram Building, the Sydney Opera House and the International Space Station. See the full list. — Sanam Yar, a Morning writer


What to Cook

Top off this pie’s toasted cornflake crust and honey-sweetened pudding with juicy plums.

Diary of a Song

In Diary of a Song, Lorde talks about how she wrote her beachy track “Solar Power.”

World Through a Lens

North Korean defectors speak about how fashion helped them transition to their new life: “I never had the freedom to wear what I wanted, but I never questioned it because I didn’t know this freedom existed.”

What to Read

In “The Rise and Fall of Osama bin Laden,” Peter Bergen gives a full portrait of his subject.

Now Time to Play

The pangram from yesterday’s Spelling Bee was infirmary. Here is today’s puzzle — or you can play online.

Here’s today’s Mini Crossword, and a clue: Cheap bar (four letters).

If you’re in the mood to play more, find all of our games here.

Thanks for spending part of your morning with The Times. See you tomorrow.

P.S. A fire destroyed downtown Spokane, Wash., 132 years ago. The wind-driven flames “spread with fearful rapidity. The firemen were powerless,” The Times reported.

Here’s today’s print front page.

“The Daily” is about Tunisia. On “The Argument,” a debate about talking politics at work.

Lalena Fisher, Ian Prasad Philbrick, Tom Wright-Piersanti and Sanam Yar contributed to The Morning. You can reach the team at [email protected].

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